Pediatric Otolaryngology is a part of the specialty dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the nose, throat, and ears in children.
The most frequent diseases in childhood are otitis media, rhinopharyngitis, tonsil disease, and vegetations. These diseases not only affect the development and growth of the child, but can also leave sequelae throughout life, such as hearing loss, chronic otitis, or alterations of the facial mass. From what follows, its prevention and early treatment are of great importance to us.
Tonsils And Adenoid Vegetations
The tonsils are two lymphatic structures on both sides of the throat that are involved in defending against infections in the infant stage. In children they can give two types of problems:
- Infectious: Known as tonsillitis, it produces pain, fever, and cervical nodes. Sometimes they become chronically infected, known as chronic tonsillitis.
The treatment of infections of these organs consists of the administration of an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and often antibiotic drugs.
- Obstructive: When they increase in size (tonsillar hypertrophy), they can generate snoring, apneas, as well as alterations in the development of the palate and tooth placement.
If the obstructive and / or infectious impact is very important for the child’s quality of life, a tonsillectomy can be performed, that is, tonsil removal surgery.
The adenoids are similar structures to the tonsils but are located behind the nostrils. His infection produces persistent nasal mucus, and if they increase in size, they cause nasal obstruction, snoring, nasal voice, repetitive otitis, and hearing problems.
Sometimes a surgical treatment called adenoidectomy is necessary, that is, the removal of the vegetations.
Acute Otitis Media
It is an infection of the middle ear that usually occurs following a respiratory illness and is especially common in children up to the age of 5 years. In these infections, suppuration of the ear sometimes occurs through a perforation of the eardrum that usually closes spontaneously.
Treatment is based on anti-inflammatory drugs and an amoxicillin-type antibiotic that should be prescribed for ten days, every 8 hours.
Serous Otitis Media
It is not an infection, but inflammation in the middle ear, with fluid accumulation in that sector of the ear. The cause is the immaturity of the Eustachian tube, which can sometimes be accompanied by adenoid vegetations.
They are especially relevant in children since they can go unnoticed and are responsible for hearing loss and repetitive acute otitis media.
When the fluid is maintained over time, a small surgery may be necessary, which involves the placement of a transtympanic tube.